What is the Bologna Process?
The Bologna Process derives its name from the so-called Bologna Declaration, which was signed on 19 June 1999 by ministers in charge of higher education from 29 European countries. It is an intergovernmental European reform process aimed at establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010.
This European Higher Education Area is envisaged as an open space that allows students, graduates, and higher education staff to benefit from unhampered mobility and equitableaccess to high quality higher education.
The corner stones of such an open space are mutual recognition of degrees and other higher education qualifications, transparency (readable and comparable degrees organised in a three-cycle structure) and European cooperation in quality assurance.
In this context the 1997 Lisbon Recognition Convention and pan-European transparency tools like the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and the Diploma Supplement (DS) play a crucial role. Equally important are the overarching qualifications framework for the EHEA (pdf, 799kB) and the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the EHEA (pdf, 176kB). The latter will also function as admission criteria for quality assurance and accreditation agencies in the European Register of Quality Assurance Agencies .
Another important feature of the envisaged European Higher Education Area is the social dimension of European higher education with an emphasis on participative equity and employability of graduates in a lifelong learning context. Finally, an attractive European Higher Education Area will display openness to the world, as reaffirmed in the Strategy for the EHEA in a Global Setting .
The Bologna Process is taken forward through a work programme that receives orientations from biannual ministerial conferences Prague 2001,Berlin 2003, Bergen 2005,London 2007,Leuven 2009, and Budapest and Vienna 2010 . These conferences are prepared by a Bologna Follow-up Group, which is in turn supported by a Bologna Secretariat .
The key to success of the Bologna cooperation is the underlying partnership approach, in both policy-making and implementation. Today, the Process unites 47 countries, all party to the European Cultural Convention, that cooperate in a flexible way, involving also international organisations and European associations representing higher education institutions, students, staff and employers.
Action Lines of the Bologna Process
Introduced in the Bologna Declaration:
1. Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees
2. Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles
3. Establishment of a system of credits
4. Promotion of mobility
5. Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance
6. Promotion of the European dimension in higher education
Introduced in the Prague Communiqué:
7. Lifelong learning
8. Higher education institutions and students
9. Promoting the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area
Introduced in the Berlin Communiqué:
10. Doctoral studies and the synergy between the EHEA and ERA
The social dimension of higher education might be seen as an overarching or transversal action line
Functioning of the Bologna Process
When ministers met in Prague in 2001, they confirmed the need for a structure for the follow-up work, consisting from then on of a follow-up group responsible for the continuing development of the process and a preparatory group responsible for the planning of the next ministerial conference. The Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG) was composed of representatives of all participant countries and the EU Commission and chaired by the rotating EU Presidency. The preparatory group was a smaller group chaired by the representative of the country hosting the next ministerial meeting (Germany). The Council of Europe, the EUA, EURASHE, and ESIB took part as observers in both groups.
In the Prague Communiqué, ministers encouraged the Follow-up Group to organise a series of international seminars to explore the most important issues in the process.
After Prague, the BFUG developed a work programme for the period up to Berlin based on a number of seminars (ten in all), covering the issues of the Prague Communiqué. The ten seminars were realised in the period from spring 2001 to early summer 2003.
The BFUG also had to consider the enlargement of the Bologna Process and the handling of new applications for access. It formed several working groups to prepare particular issues for discussion. However, the BFUG devoted most of its working time and expertise to a discussion about stocktaking and possible directions for further development of the Bologna Process, and to consideration of issues important for the drafting of the Berlin Communiqué.
In its last meeting before Berlin, the BFUG discussed the future steering of the Bologna Process. The process had developed into a range of complex activities based on the common political will of ministers and aimed at strengthening the international co-operation between all member states and partners. In his report to the Berlin Ministerial Conference, professor Pavel Zgaga stated that the main tasks of the steering structures in the coming years would be:
(1) to organise the further follow-up programme after the Berlin Communiqué
(2) to organise the stock-taking exercise
(3) to secure continuity and further clarification of the principles of the Bologna Process
(4) to secure close co-operation with relevant stakeholders
(5) to prepare the next ministerial conference
The necessary link between national implementation and international co-operation can be guaranteed only by involving all members and by giving them a chance of active participation. This argument requires a large group with an overall responsibility for following up the decisions of ministers and preparing the next ministerial conference.
On the other hand the demanding and comprehensive programme after Berlin will require an efficient administrative and working structure.
The final result of the discussions was conveyed to the ministers and written into the Berlin Communiqué:
Ministers entrusted the implementation of all the issues covered in the Communiqué, the overall steering of the Bologna Process and the preparation of the next ministerial meeting to the BFUG, chaired by the EU Presidency, with the host country of the next ministerial conference as vice-chair.
After the Berlin summit, the BFUG consist of 40 member countries and the European Commission, with the Council of Europe, the EUA, EURASHE, ESIB and UNESCO-CEPES as consultative members.
A Board, also chaired by the EU Presidency, will oversee the work between the meetings of the Follow-up Group. The Board will be composed of the Chair, the next host country as Vice-Chair, the preceding and the following EU Presidencies, three participating countries elected by the Follow-up Group for one year, the European Commission and, as consultative members, the Council of Europe, the EUA, EURASHE and ESIB.
The Follow-up Group as well as the Board may convene ad-hoc working groups as necessary.
The overall follow-up work will be supported by a Secretariat provided by the country hosting the next Ministerial Conference (Norway).
The Board and the Secretariat
In its first meeting after the Berlin Conference, the Follow-up Group further defined the responsibilities of the Board and the tasks of the Secretariat.
The Board shall support the BFUG in its activities and provide efficiency to the management of the Bologna Process. The Board shall co-ordinate and monitor the implementation of the work programme.
The following list, which is not exhaustive, illustrates the scope of this responsibility:
providing support and assistance to new members as they seek to meet the objectives of the Bologna Process
The BFUG may delegate tasks to the Board when it deems it appropriate and necessary to achieve the objectives of the Bologna Process. However, formal decisions are the responsibility of the BFUG itself.
The Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research has set up a Secretariat to support the overall follow-up work, as was foreseen in the Berlin Communiqué. The Secretariat is fully operational from December 2003 with a staff of three.
The tasks of the Secretariat will include:
- administrative and operational responsibility for the next ministerial conference
- secretarial functions as directed by the BFUG and the Board
- execution, under specific mandate from the BFUG or the Board, of special tasks concerning the implementation of the work programme
There are 47 member countries participating in the Bologna Process, all party to the European Cultural Convention.
CRITERIA FOR NEW CONSULTATIVE MEMBERS AND BFUG PARTNERS
In its meeting 1-2 March 2005, the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG) adopted criteria for consultative members. The BFUG will advise Ministers that consultative membership of the BFUG should remain restricted and that potential new consultative members should satisfy these criteria. Decisions are made by the Ministerial Conference. The BFUG also decided that relevant organisations may be accepted as BFUG Partners, receiving information and invitations to seminars, being invited to participate under relevant agenda points at BFUG meetings, and also being invited to send an observer to the Ministerial Conferences. Such decisions will be made by the BFUG. The criteria for new consultative members and for BFUG Partners focus on the added value to the Bologna Process, relevance of the stakeholder group, representativeness of the organization and its organisational form.
1. Added value to the Bologna Process
Present consultative members are either inter-governmental organisations active in higher education or organisations representing higher education institutions or students. Any new consultative member or partner of the BFUG should give the process an added value, meaning that their contribution should be relevant to the work of the BFUG.
1.1 Additional criteria on added value for new consultative members
Any new consultative members should also meet the following criteria:
2. Relevance of the stakeholder group
Organisations that may contribute to stronger links between higher education and the labour market are relevant to the Process. Organisations that may contribute to stronger links between higher education and other educational fields may also be relevant. Organisations representing special professions do not match the BFUG, which deals with general principles and structures in higher education.
A new consultative member or a partner should not be a sub-organisation of a member or
consultative member of the Bologna Follow-up Group.
3.1 Additional criteria on representativeness for new consultative members
Any new consultative member should:
4. Organisational form
A new consultative member or a partner should either be a non-governmental organisation
(NGO) or an inter-governmental organisation.
4.1 Additional criteria on organisational form for new consultative members
Its mandate should reflect its relevance to the Bologna Process and its right to give an opinion on behalf of its members on matters relating to the Bologna Process.
Potential new consultative members should send an application to the Secretariat of the BFUG, documenting that they satisfy the listed criteria for consultative members. The Secretariat will place the application on the agenda of the BFUG, which will advise Ministers. Decisions are made by the Ministerial Conference.
Relevant organisations may be accepted by the BFUG as BFUG Partners, provided they satisfy
the listed criteria for such partnership.
Fundamental Declarations and Developments
RECOGNITION OF DEGREES AND STUDY PERIODS
Lisbon Recognition Convention
The Convention on the recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region, the so-called Lisbon Recognition Convention, developed by the Council of Europe together with the UNESCO was signed in Lisbon on 11 April 1997 and it is the key legal instrument for recognition of qualifications across Europe. The full text and updated list of signatures and ratifications may be found at;
The Convention was signed on December 1, 2004 and this Convention came into force on March 1, 2004. Since the provision set forth in the Article IV.8 is legally inapplicable, Turkey reserves the right not to apply the Article IV.8 of the Convention with the said instrument registered at the Secretariat General on 15 February 2007 "The Government of Republic of Turkey does not bound itself with the Article IV.8 of the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Educations in the European Region, in accordance with the Article XI.7 of the Convention."
In line with the Lisbon Convention, the Regulation on the Recognition of Foreign Higher Education Qualification was reviewed by the integration of the five principles related to the assessment of the qualifications of the Lisbon Recognition Convention adopted by the Decision of the Council of Higher Education on April 13, 2006 and came into force on May 11, 2007 upon its publication in the Official Gazette No.26519. Since then, the new regulation with relevant changes has been applied in the procedure of recognition and the assessments of foreign higher education diplomas on Turkey.
Diploma Supplement (DS)
Diploma Supplement (DS) is a document attached to a higher education diploma aiming at improving international ‘transparency' and at facilitating the academic and professional recognition of qualifications (diplomas, degrees, certificates etc.).
Diploma Supplement has been mandatory at all higher education institutions since the end of the academic year of 2005-2006 by the decision of the Council of Higher Education dated March 11, 2005. A national Diploma Supplement template was formed in line with the model recommended jointly by the European Commission, the Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES and an office under the supervision of the Council of Higher Education has been charged with checking the compatibility of Diploma Supplement samples from the higher education institutions with national template and giving technical assistance. Starting with the end of 2005-2006 academic year, all higher education institutions issue Diploma Supplement in one of the three main languages of the European Union, English or German or French, to all graduates at first, second and short cycles, and first copy being free of charge.
At 13 universities awarded Diploma Supplement Label by the European Commission (2 universities in 2005 and 11 universities in 2006), Diploma Supplement is given automatically to students upon successfully completion of their studies in all first, second and short cycle. At the rest of higher education institutions, due to the large number of graduates, Diploma Supplement is given upon request of the student, not automatically.
Besides the activities carried out under the supervision of the Council of Higher Education, the National Agency and the National team of Bologna Promoters are also spending great effort in promoting the awareness of the Diploma supplement among the students, universities and employers, and better understanding of the Diploma Supplement usage, aiming to achieve transparency and recognition of qualifications, thus facilitating mobility. National information conferences, regional meeting are organized by the National team of Bologna Promoters within the context of "implementation of Bologna Process in Turkey."
In Turkey, the Council of Higher Education is the central authority for the recognition of foreign qualifications; therefore the application for the recognition of foreign diplomas is submitted to the "Equivalency Unit" structured under the Council of Higher Education. Diploma Supplement is not a document that guarantees recognition of diplomas issued by the foreign higher education institutions, but that facilitates the "equivalency process". Holders of foreign qualifications must prove other documents the validity of the qualification in the awarding country for further studies.
European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)
The European Credit Transfer System is a student-centered system based on the student workload required to achieve the objectives of a program specified in terms learning outcomes and competences to be acquired. ECTS was set up initially for credit transfer to facilitate the recognition of periods of study abroad and thus enhanced the quality and the volume of student mobility in Europe. Recently ECTS is developing into an accumulation system to be implemented at institutional, regional, national and European level.
Besides the Diploma Supplement, ECTS activities have been one of the main working areas of Bologna Process implementations in Turkey. Particularly, within the last two years, Turkish universities have been focused on the way how to adapt their credit and grade systems to the ECTS principles, on the basis of the student workload, taking into account the learning outcomes, skills and competences that define the qualification. Therefore, in many universities, the teams of ECTS / DS Coordinators have been formed to carry out the DS / ECTS activities at departmental, faculty and university levels to reflect the student workload, learning outcomes, competences and skills in ECTS.
In the framework of Bologna Project, the Council of Higher Education together with the National Team of Bologna Promoters are organizing many regional and nation-wide conferences, meetings and workshops for academic staff, students and external stakeholders, giving guidance and advices on how to calculate the ECTS credits.
Moreover, the special focus is put on the necessity of student's involvement in drafting ECTS activities in order to calculate them more at outcome based, at not input based. At this point, in some universities, higher education staff responsible for ECTS studies has started to review curriculum and establish quality development mechanisms to ensure more student-centered approach.
Turkish ENIC/NARIC Centre
The ENIC Network (European Network of Information Centres) made up of national information centers and NARIC Network (National Academic recognition Information Centres), created in 1984 to improve academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study in the Member States of the European Union, the European Economic Area (EEA) and Central and Eastern European countries provide information on;
- the recognition of foreign diplomas, degrees and other academic or professional qualifications
- education systems in other European countries and one's own country
- opportunities for studying abroad, including information on loans and scholarships, as well as on practical questions related to mobility and equivalence.
Turkish NARIC (National Academic Recognition Information Centre) has been established under the supervision of the Council of Higher Education in April 2003 and the Turkish ENIC (European Network of national Information Centre) has been operating under the Council of Higher Education since 1998.
The main objective of the Turkish ENIC/NARIC Centre is to improve academic recognition of diplomas and periods of studies by promoting information and experience exchange in the European Union member states, the EEA countries and the candidate countries of the European Union.
Increasing demand for higher education, on the contrary, the inability to increase the monetary supply for the higher education at the same amount, fast economic and social change, increase in the demand of more aggravated service from the higher education institutions, urges higher education institutions be more systematic and act more strategically in their education, research and other services.
This change, is also applicable for the European level with a radical impetus, starting with the Lisbon Process which aims at developing a knowledge based society and economy.
In this framework, the intention of the European countries to develop a "European Higher Education Area" and " European Research Area" has been shaped by the Bologna Process, and have been supported and developed by the persecutor processes. Nowadays, these processes have been running with a great impetus. Within these endeavors, strengthening of the European higher education, improvement of the quality levels, development of quality assurance systems became the most important agenda items.
Within the Bologna Process, the works done in this framework was published in the"Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area" by the "European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education" (ENQA). The standards and guidelines published in the mentioned report are the pathfinder elements to the work that have been done in the process. In this connection, it is aimed to reach an increased level of quality in a comparable manner among the higher education institutions.
The quality assurance (QA) system partially established in Turkey is based on institutional evaluation, which includes annual internal assessments and post-assessment studies (review their improvement through periodical monitoring and improvement process for continuous improvement) carried out by universities and external evaluation carried out every 5 years under normal conditions. The system has also been designed to involve accreditation and evaluation elements in order to guarantee the quality assurance of learning outcomes determined on major/program basis in the scope of NQF.
The internal QA is the heart of the overall QA system for higher education in Turkey. It is believed that the developments in the field have brought about a tremendous consciousness in quality culture and change in the management of higher education institutions which recognizes the importance of internal QA procedures in the services they provide. All higher education institutions have their own publicly available five-year strategic plans published with clear measurable objectives and policies including the main issues outlined in the European Standards and Guidelines for QA in Higher Education as well as the financial planning for resource al. It has also become a regular exercise that institutions perform an annual self-assessment at beginning of each year with the results submitted to the Council of Higher Education (YÖK).
A new "Regulation on Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement at Higher Education Institutions", complying with the recommendations and criteria of the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the EHEA was enacted on September 20, 2005. The Regulation determines the principles for evaluating and improving the quality of educational, instructional and research activities and administrative services at higher education institutions, as well as approval and recognition of their level of quality through an independent external assessment. It ensures the internal assessment of academic activities and administrative services of higher education institutions, which is carried out periodically every year, starting from the beginning of 2006, and a cyclical external assessment every five years. The results of both internal and external assessments are open to the public.
Following the adoption of the regulation, the independent "Commission for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement in Higher Education (YODEK)" with 9 members elected by the Inter-university Council – IUC (composed of the rectors and the university representatives elected by the senates of the universities) and one student member appointed by the national student union was formed. The commission is responsible for maintaining and organizing the activities related to academic assessment and quality improvements at higher education institutions within the provisions set forth by the regulation.
The related regulation aims to establish independent national external QA agencies. The independent body YODEKresponsible for implementing the regulation is also the authority to grant license to national external QA agencies. A higher education institution undergoing external assessment may obtain a "Quality Certificate" indicating its level of quality and the level of quality improvements achieved in that institution. The period of validity of the certificate is five years. The Quality Certificate may be obtained by a higher education institution at institutional level as well as at the levels of academic unit(s) or program(s) in these units.
The Commission for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement in HE (YÖDEK) has issued standards and guidelines and defined the processes and indicators necessary for maintenance of the activities for academic assessment and quality improvement in HEIs:
These include the main processes of:
• Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement
• Strategic Planning
• Institutional Assessment (self-and environmental)
Within the scope of the regulations set up, at national level; YÖDEK and at institutional level; Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement Boards (ADEKs) are responsible for organizing, coordinating and conducting the processes.
Recently, some independent national quality agencies started to work on acquiring accredited status of external quality assurance agency. Association for Evaluation and Accreditation of Engineering Programs (MUDEK) was awarded the license for external assessment of engineering programs on 15 November 2007 and acquired an accredited status as an independent external quality assurance agency. So far, MUDEK has accredited 57 engineering programs in 10 different universities. Furthermore, there are two more sectoral agencies (for health and architecture programs) which applied to YODEK to become independent national accreditation agencies.
At present, the Turkish quality assurance system is open to evaluation from abroad – a practice widely used by many universities. As of today, 42 engineering programmes of the four Turkish universities have been evaluated by the "Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology-USA (ABET)" at different times and received "substantial equivalence" from ABET.
Regulation of Quality Assurance in Higher Education was carried into effect as published on the Official Gazette dated 23/07/2015 and with reference number 29423. With this Regulation, Higher Education Quality Board was established officially.
With the publishing of this regulation, the Regulation of Academic Evaluation and Quality Development in Higher Education Institutions published on Official Gazette dated 20/9/2005 with reference no 25942 has been repealed.
The aim of this regulation is to enact the essentials related to the authorization processes of internal-external quality assurance, accreditation processes and independent external evaluation institutions for education-training and research activities as well as administrative services of higher education institutions, and the duties, authority and responsibilities defined within this context.
Detailed info is available on http://www.yok.gov.tr/web/kalitekurulu .
Higher Education Qualifications Framework
In 2006, Council of Higher Education (CoHE), which is the responsible body for higher education in Turkey, has taken decision to set up NQF in line with QF-EHEA. In order to set the agenda and organize the process, a national committee was set up by the CoHE on April 28, 2006.
The Committee initially consisted of a core group of four members: one member from the CoHE, one Rector, the President of the National Commission for Academis Assessment and Quality Improvement in Higher Education (YODEK) and the Chairman of the Executive Board of a non-governmental organization, Educational Volunteers Foundation of Turkey (TEGV). At that stage of development, it was agreed that the definitions on qualifications and competences, which are set up at the Overarching Qualifications Framework for EHEA based on Dublin descriptors, would be applied in Turkey. Accordingly, the Committee drafted the level descriptors compatible with those of the EHEA first, second and third cycles as well as the short cycle. In April 2007, first cycle of consultation process has started. First draft version of level descriptors was sent to all universities and other related stakeholders (national student union, the National Ministry of Education, NGOs business world including employers and trade associations) and relevant feedbacks were included in the descriptors. The subject was also on the agenda of the National Team of Bologna Promoters and it was open to discussion in a series of meetings with participants from teaching staff of universities, students and other stakeholders.
In July 2008, the number of the members of the initial Committee was increased to nine involving more representatives of the CoHE and also an advisory working group on NQF comprising of 13 members from academic staff of universities has been established. Based on the discussions and feedbacks from the stakeholders and new developments in the fields, both groups decided to redefine the degree structure of higher education based on learning outcomes and make qualifications and awards provided in each level more transparent and conceivable within the contexts of both overarching EQFs (EQF-LLL and QF-EHEA)
Since qualifications within the Turkish Higher Education System includes all vocational qualifications at the level of short cycle which is strongly linked to vocational education at secondary education and some high-level vocational qualifications at first, second and third cycles, it was decided to adopt EQF level descriptors as a referencing process and currently all levels and profiles within each layer of higher education are being reviewed within the context of the EQF-LLL. It was also agreed within the Commission and Working Group that this would facilitate life long learning at every level from primary to higher education including vocational education and lead to have a one single NQF in the future. This work will be finalised by the end of November 2008.
The committee and the working group are now planning to start the second stage of consultation process with stakeholders mentioned above plus more from government and different sectors of business and trade unions.
Consultation process is planned to be completed before 2009 and approval by CoHE in March 2009, followed by administrative setting up procedures for implementation thereafter.
Student Participation and Social Dimension
The Social dimension of the Bologna Process and Student Participation in Higher Education Governance
Social Dimension in the Scope of Bologna Process:
The social Dimension of the envisaged European Higher Education Area aims at:
equality of opportunities in higher education , in terms of: access, participation and successful completion of studies; studying and living conditions; guidance and counseling; financial support, and student participation in higher education governance. This implies also equal opportunities in mobility, when it comes to portability of financial support, removing barriers, and providing incentives. <1>Both enhance the quality, attractiveness and competitiveness of the European Higher Education Area.
The main objectives of the "Social Dimension" in higher education listed/ explained as follows:
1) To have the equal chance to access to the higher education
2) Strengthen the developments of social, cultural and economic developments of the societies
3) To raise the quality and attractiveness of European higher education
4) To set suitable work and study circumstances for students
5) To provide the support of the government to the disadvantageous student groups
6) To provide flexible education methods for the access to the higher education and within the higher education
7) To provide the participation of the students to the governance of the higher education
The social dimension has been an integral part of the Bologna Process since the first ministerial follow-up meeting inPrague in 2001. The social dimension was included in the Prague Communiqué at the suggestion of the student representatives. In subsequent communiqués the social dimension has been recognized as crucial for the success of the European Higher Education Area.
With the 2005 Bergen Communiqué, Ministers declared the social dimension an integral part of the Process of creating the European Higher Education Area (EHEA):
"The social dimension of the Bologna Process is a constituent part of the EHEA and a necessary condition for the attractiveness and competitiveness of the EHEA. We therefore renew our commitment to making quality higher education equally accessible to all, and stress the need for appropriate conditions for students so that they can complete their studies without obstacles related to their social and economic background. The social dimension includes measures taken by governments to help students, especially from socially disadvantaged groups, in financial and economic aspects and to provide them with guidance and counselling services with a view to widening access." <2>
Given that considerable differences exist in relation to the social dimension of higher education between the countries participating in the process of creating the European Higher Education Area, it was not considered appropriate to narrowly define the social dimension or to suggest a number of detailed actions for all countries to implement.
With the London Communiqué of May 2007, Ministers responsible for Higher Education in the countries participating in the Bologna Process confirmed the relevance of the social dimension:
"Higher education should play a strong role in fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities and raising the level of knowledge, skills and competences in society. Policy should therefore aim to maximise the potential of individuals in terms of their personal development and their contribution to a sustainable and democratic knowledge-based society.
We share the societal aspiration that the student body entering, participating in and completing higher education at all levels should reflect the diversity of our populations. We reaffirm the importance of students being able to complete their studies without obstacles related to their social and economic background. We therefore continue our efforts to provide adequate student services, create more flexible learning pathways into and within higher education, and to widen participation at all levels on the basis of equal opportunity."
Instead, the 2005-2007 social dimension working group, which had been set up after the Bergen ministerial meeting, recommended that each country develops its own strategy, including an action plan, for the social dimension. To help countries with devising national strategies on the social dimension and to facilitate the necessary national debates, the working group proposed a structure and topics for such a debate. For more background information and the detailed recommendations read the full 2007 Working Group Report.
The EUROSTUDENT project collates comparable data on the socio-economic background and living conditions of students throughout Europe. In the third round of the study, 23 countries have taken part, which means that the data covers most of larger Europe and very diverse higher education systems. The EUROSTUDENT data set includes nearly 250 key indicators. The project is coordinated by the Higher Education Information System (HIS) Hanover,Germany.
The objectives of EUROSTUDENT are:
· To deliver comparable key data and basic information in order to describe and map out the socio-economic living conditions of students in Europe
· To provide a structured and standardized monitoring system with which the effects of structural measures and changes can be identified for specific student groups
· To describe the current situation and with the aid of international comparison to identify obstacles to an inclusive and effective European Higher Education Area (EHEA)
These objectives complement the goals of the Lisbon strategy and the Bologna Process to create an attractive and a competitive European Higher Education Area which can maximize the potentials of individuals in terms of their personal development and their contribution to society and the economy.
23 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, CzechRepublic, England/Wales, Estonia, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy,Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, SlovakRepublic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, theNetherlands and Turkey) have participated in the third round of EUROSTUDENT. The five countries (Croatia,Denmark, Georgia, Greece and Hungary) are observers to the current round and will potentially join the project in the fourth round, which begins in 2008.
In accordance with the Decision of the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) of February 3, 2006, the EUROSTUDENT III project has been carried out in Turkey by a national commission headed by Professor Nezih Guven (Middle EastTechnicalUniversity, Ankara, Turkey). The other members of the commission are Associate Professor Ayse Gunduz Hosgor (Middle EastTechnicalUniversity, Ankara, Turkey) and Assistant Professor Mustafa Sen (Middle EastTechnicalUniversity, Ankara, Turkey). Within the framework of the project, an online survey has been carried out in 2007 with the participation of about 15.000 students enrolled in undergraduate programmes.
The report of the project has been published in August 2008.
Another keystone of the Social Dimension is the participation of the students to the governance of the higher education and to take place as an "equal stakeholder" in the decision process.
1) ESU- EUROPEAN STUDENT UNION
On October 17th 1982 seven national unions of students (NSU Norway, NUS United Kingdom, SFS Sweden, SHÍ Iceland, UNEF-IDFrance, DSF Denmark and ÖH Austria) gathered in Stockholm to create WESIB, the West European Student Information Bureau.
The aim of WESIB was to coordinate the flow of information between the members and from European and international bodies such as the Council of Europe, the European Communities and UNESCO. In line with this aim, WESIB organised seminars twice a year on matters relating to higher education, and held its highest decision making meetings - Board Meetings - at the same time.
The political changes in eastern Europe at the end of the 1980s affected WESIB as well, as it was opened for national unions of students from the former east and at the 17th Board Meeting (BM17) in February 1990, WESIB dropped the "W" to become the European Student Information Bureau (ESIB). These changes resulted in a surge of membership applications and the number of members rose from 16 in 1990 to 31 in 1992. The fact that the WESIB secretariat had moved to Vienna in 1988 and by that had come very close to the events of 1989 probably also helped in getting new members from the former east.
As the European Communities started to gain more influence on the scene of higher education in Europe with its exchange programmes Socrates and Erasmus, the national unions of students in Europe decided to change the aim of ESIB from just an information sharing organisation to a political organisation that represented the views of students to European institutions. Thus the members gave ESIB policy-making powers at BM21 in November 1991. At BM23 in November 1992 the Director also got more representative powers and Working Groups were established. As ESIB no longer was only an information bureau, the Board decided at BM24 in May 1993 to change the name once more, this time to The National Unions of Students in Europe, but retaining the old and well-known abbreviation ESIB. The representative powers of ESIB demanded more work from its members and at BM31 in November 1996 it was decided that ESIB should be headed by a chairperson together with an Executive Committee rather than by one of its member NUSes.
Even though ESIB had both representative and policy-making powers, its field of work was somewhat limited during the 1990s as higher education wasn't within the competencies of the European Union or any other European institution for that matter. This situation came to an abrupt end in 1999, when ministers of education from 29 European countries signed the so called 'Bologna declaration', where they stated the intention to create a European Higher Education Area by the year 2010. This gave ESIB a European arena to act on and at the Bologna ministerial follow-up summit inPrague in May 2001, ESIB became an official observer in the Bologna Process, representing the students of Europe.
As the Bologna process demanded a greater presence by student representatives on a European level, BM37 in November 1999 decided to form expert committees who could deal with certain aspects of higher education. At that board meeting, the Committee on Prague was created (today:Bologna Process Committee) and it was to be followed at BM40 in May 2001 by the Committee on Commodification of Education. As more and more policy and decision making at European higher education was centered to Brussels in the 1990s, ESIB moved its secretariat there in 2000.
ESIB went on to become the umbrella organisation of 47 national unions of students from 36 countries and, through these members, represent more than 10 million students.
In May 2007, at the 52nd Board Meeting , held in London, it was decided that ESIB needed to change its' name in order for the role of the organisation to be better reflected nominatively. The ESIB acronym no longer represented the work of this organisation and, with the 25th Anniversary fast approaching, this seemed as good a time as any.
The Executive Committee proposed ESU - Europeans Students' Union. This was unanimously accepted by the Board of members.
The aim of ESU is to represent and promote the educational, social, economic and cultural interests of students at a European level towards all relevant bodies and in particular the European Union, Bologna Follow-Up Group, Council of Europe and UNESCO. <3>
1) STUDENT PARTICIPATION in HIGHER EDUCATION GOVERNANCE in TURKEY
"Regulation on Student Councils of Higher Education Institutions and the National Student Council of Higher Education Institutions in Turkey", was enacted by CoHE after its publishing in the Official Journal no. 25942 of September 20, 2005. In accordance with this regulation, a national-level student council was established following the election of the president and the bodies of the national student council that took place in December 2005.
The new regulation provides students with a complete bottom-up organizational power in the most democratic manner starting from the departments/programme/major level at the bottom to the higher education institution and the national level at the top and aims to increase the student participation, involvement and contribution and take active part at every level of academic and administrative meetings of higher education institutions and that of student representation at national and international level through the national student councils of higher education institutions.
President of university student union can attend the Senate and the Executive Board meetings of the university concerned if student-related issues are in the agenda of the meetings (Article 24/e of the Regulation). Likewise, president of the national student council can attend the General Board of CoHE and the Interuniversity Board, which is advisory body to CoHE, meetings upon the invitation of the President of CoHE if student related issues are to be discussed in these meetings (Article 35/f of the Regulation). However, under the existing HE Law, student representatives do not have the right to vote. This shortcoming of the existing Law is emphasized in the draft report on strategy for HE to 2025.
One student appointed by the National Student Council acts as a full member of the national Quality Assurance Agency, YÖDEK in accordance with the amendment to the regulation adopted following its publishing in the Official Journal No.26390 of December 28, 2006. Students are to participate as full members in external review teams and in decision-making. They exercise the same roles as the other members of the team. At institutional level, on the other hand, all universities, in accordance with the regulation, are required to include one representative from the university student union in their "Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement Board (ADEK)" as a full member (Article 8 of the regulation)
The National Student Council Board Meeting took place in 5-6 January 2007, in GaziUniversity and Volkan Yılmaz had been elected as the president of the council. The next Board Meeting and elections will be took place in 27- 29 December 2008 in GaziUniversity.
NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY
Welcome to the website about National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in Turkey (NQF-HETR). The purpose of this website is to share the works done on the national basis about the development of national qualifications framework for higher education with all the internal and external stakeholders. The framework mentioned here is the one that is guaranteed to be completed by Bologna Process countries in an effort to increase thetransparency, recognition and mobility in higher education systems of these countries in accordance with the objectives of Lisbon Strategy published in 2000 by European Union (EU) and with the objectives of Bologna Process in which our country was included as a member in 2001.
Qualifications for higher education mean what a person achieving any higher education degree is supposed to know, do and be competent about.
National Qualifications Framework , on the other side, expresses the qualifications for a national educational system and the relation between these. In other words, National Qualifications Framework is a system in which qualifications, which are recognized by national and international stakeholders and can be related, are structured within a certain organization. Through this system, all the qualifications for the higher education and the other learning outcomes can be explained and related to each other consistently.
The degree to which qualifications are gained is measured objectively at the end of each lesson/module as "learning outcomes".
The Importance of NQF-HETR for Higher Education
The Importance of NQF-HETR for Students
The Importance of NQF-HETR for Employers
EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK
Two different qualifications frameworks exist in Europe.
NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK
National qualifications framework is a system, which includes definitions and approaches that are closest to countries' socieatal, cultural and economic realities. It is also a system in which degrees are given which are recognized by both national and international stakeholders and are also readable and comparable.
Overarching Framework for Qualifications of European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA)
QF-EHEA is designed only for higher education based on "Dublin Descriptors" that were decided in the Bergen Ministerial Meeting in May 2005, in which education Ministers of 45 countries who are members of Bologna Process participated. In this system, learning outcomes to be gained at the end of each level of higher education is defined.
European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF-LLL)
In the EQF-LLL system, learning outcomes for each level of education taking into account the lifelong learning principle are designed in terms of knowledge, skills and competences at eight levels.
Comparison of QF-EHEA and EQF-LLL
QF-EHEA and EQF-LLL differs in terms of geographical regions, aims and areas of implementation. EQF-LLL is designed for 27 EU member states, whereas QF-EHEA is designed for 45 member states of Bologna Process.
Because EQF-LLL covers all cycles of lifelong learning, the working groups are in a wider context. In these working groups, representatives of ministries from all levels, representatives from national authoirties of higher educaiton institutions and sectoral representatives participate. Descriptions and concepts in the EQF-LLL system differs from that of QF-EHEA because the former aims to develop a common framework for very different levels throughout lifelong learning and the latter being designed only for higher education. Level descriptors in each system are designed towards different implementations. In the EQF-LLL system, descriptors are more general and they may apply to all learning types in the context of lifelong learning. On the other hand, descriptors for QF-EHEA is designed only and as a whole for higher education.
Saying all these differences, we can also say that we can relate them to each other. To give example, the 5th and 8th levels of EQF-LLL are general descriptors that may apply to all types of qualifications thus, they may also apply to higher education qualifications. As a matter of fact, in the London Communique that was published after Bologna Ministerial Conference of 17-18 May 2007, it was stated that national qualifications frameworks that are compatible with QF-EHEA would also be compatible with EQF-LLL. Moreover, the same statement was repeated in one of the reports of QF Working Group (dated May 2007), that was developed by BFUG (Bologna Follow-up Group). In the same report, it was also stressed that in order to avoid any complexity because there exists two different frameworks, it was recommended to take QF-EHEA as a basis in the promotion of European Higher Education Area in a global dimension.
YÜKSEKÖĞRETİM YETERLİKLER KOMİSYONU ÜYELERİ
Prof. Dr. Atilla ERİŞ (Yürütücü)
Prof. Dr. Ömer DEMİR
Prof. Dr. Berrak KURTULUŞ
Prof. Dr. Durmuş GÜNAY
Prof. Dr. Muhittin ŞİMŞEK
Prof. Dr. Ali Ekrem ÖZKUL
Prof. Dr. Atabay DÜZENLİ
Prof. Dr. Mehmet DURMAN
Prof. Dr. Muzaffer ELMAS
YÜKSEKÖĞRETİM YETERLİKLER ÇALIŞMA GRUBU ÜYELERİ
Mehmet DURMAN (Bşk)
Sakarya Üniv. Rektörü
Sakarya Üniv. Rektör Yrd.
Çukurova Üniv., Fen-Edeb. Fak.
Hacettepe Üniv., Ed. Fak., Alman Dili ve Edeb. Böl.
Hacettepe Üniv., Tıp. Fak., Çocuk Sağ. ve Hast. ABD.
Hacettepe Üniv., Tıp. Fak., Anatomi A.B.D.
Kocaeli Üniv., İİBF., Çalışma Eko. ve End. İliş. Böl.
İTÜ, İşletme Fak., İşletme Müh. Böl.
Anadolu Üniv., Mühendislik Fak. Dekanı
Ankara Üniv., Eğitim Fak. Dekanı
KTÜ, Mühendislik Fak., Jeoloji Müh. Böl.
Marmara Üniv., Mühendislik Fak., Makina Müh. Böl.
Türkiye'de yükseköğretimde ulusal yeterlikler çerçevesi oluşturulmasına yönelik ilk çalışmalar, 2005 yılında Bergen'de gerçekleştirilen ve ulusal yeterlikler çerçevelerinin oluşturulmasını karara bağlayan Bakanlar Zirvesi sonrasında Yükseköğretim Kurulu tarafından başlatılmıştır. Yükseköğretim Kurulu tarafından 28.04.2006 tarih ve 2006/8 sayılı Yükseköğretim Kurulu Başkanlık Kararı ilekurulan ilk Yükseköğretim Yeterlikler Komisyonu (YYK) üyeleri Yükseköğretim Kurulu ve Yükseköğretim Kurumları temsilcilerinden oluşturulmuş ve çalışmalarını 04.02.2008 tarihine kadar sürdürmüştür. Komisyon bu tarihler arasında sürdürdüğü çalışmalar sonucunda ağırlıklı olarak QF-EHEA düzey tanımlayıcılarını kullanarak yükseköğretimin her düzeyi (ön lisans, lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora) sonunda asgari olarak kazanılması gereken bilgi ve kavrama (knowledge and understanding), kavrananları uygulama (applied knowledge) ve geniş anlamda yetkinlere (competences) göre tanımlamış ve bu kapsamda öğrenim çıktılarından (learning outcomes) oluşan "Türk Yükseköğretim Yeterlikler Çerçevesi"nin ilk taslak versiyonunu ilgili paydaşların görüşlerine ve katkılarına sunmuştur.
10.07.2008 tarihinde Yükseköğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı tarafından UYÇ çalışmalarını sürdürmek üzere Komisyon üyeleri yenilenmiş ve Komisyon çalışmalarına destek vermek üzere, üyeleri yukarıda belirtilmiş olan "Yükseköğretim Yeterlikler Çalışma Grubu" kurularak, ilgili alandaki hazırlık çalışmaları yeniden başlatılmıştır.
Yenilenen Komisyon ve Çalışma Grubu günümüze kadar aşağıda belirtilen çalışmaları gerçekleştirmiştir.
1. 11 aşamada tamamlanması öngörülen ulusal yeterlikler oluşturma sürecinde yapılacak olan çalışmaların takvimi belirlenmiştir. Belirlenen takvime göre 2006 yılında başlatılmış olan UYÇ'nin hazırlanması ve onaylanmasının Ocak 2010 a kadar tamamlanması, gerekli idari organizasyonel yapılanmanın Şubat 2010 a kadar tamamlanması öngörülmektedir. Çerçevenin öncelikle pilot ölçekte belirlenecek olan kurum ve programlarda uygulanmasının 2010 yılına kadar ve tüm kurumları ve programları kapsayacak şekilde uygulanmasının ise 2012 yılı sonuna tamamlanması planlanmıştır. Yeterliliklerin UYÇ'ne belirli bir kalite güvencesi sistemi ile dahil edilmesi çalışmalarının 2012-2015 yılları arasında, çerçevenin Avrupa Üst Yeterlikler Çerçeveleri ile uyumluluğunun belgelendirilmesi çalışmalarının ise 2010-2012 yılları arasında tamamlanması öngörülmüştür. UYÇ'ne ait çalışmaların ve gelişmelerin yer alacağı UYÇ web sayfasının ise 2010 yılı içerisinde hazırlanması ve kullanıma açılması beklenmektedir.
Tablo 1. Türkiye Yükseköğretim Ulusal yeterlikler Çerçevesi oluşturma aşamaları ve aşamaların öngörülen tamamlanma tarihleri
UYÇ Oluşturma Aşamaları
Karar alınması (Decision to start)
Gündemi oluşturmak (Setting the agenda)
Sürecin organizasyonu (Organizing the process)
2006 - 2008
Çerçevenin tasarımı (Design framework)
Paydaşlardan görüş alınması (Consultation)
Çerçevenin onaylanması (Approval)
İdari organizasyon (Administrative set-up)
· Pilot Uygulama
· Tüm Kurumlarda Uygulama
Yeterliklerin UYÇ'ye dahil edilmesi (Inclusion of qualifications)
2010 - 2015
Çerçevenin Avrupa Yeterlik Çerçeveleri ile uyumluluğunun belgelendirilmesi (Self-certification)
2010 - 2012
UYÇ Web sitesinin oluşturulması ve yayınlanması (NQ web page)
2. Komisyon ve Çalışma Grubu, kurulduğu tarihten günümüze kadar çalışmalarını ağırlıklı olarak UYÇ'nin oluşturma aşamalarından UYÇ'nin tasarımına (Design Framework) odaklamıştır. Bu kapsamda, Türkiye Yükseköğretim Sistemi'nin yapısı, düzeyler ve her bir düzey içerisinde verilen dereceler ve UYÇ'nin tasarımının içermesi gereken genel unsurları göz önünde tutularak aşağıda belirtilen çalışmalar, paydaş görüşlerine sunulmak üzere hazırlanmıştır.
Türk Yükseköğretim Sisteminin mevcut yapısı Bologna sürecinde öngörülen 3 düzeyli (lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora) sisteme uyumludur. Yine, her iki Avrupa Üst Yeterlikler Çerçevelerinde öngörülen ve ara yeterlikler olarak nitelendirilen "kısa düzey (short cycle-QF-EHEA ve 5. Düzey-EQF-LLL) Türk Yükseköğretim Sisteminde "ön lisans" derecesi olarak verilmektedir. Bu nedenle, Yükseköğretim UYÇ'nin ön lisans, lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora düzeylerini kapsayacak şekilde 4 (dört) düzeyde tanımlanabileceği aşikardır.
Türk Yükseköğretim Sisteminin her bir düzeyinde farklı öğrenim çıktıları grupları ile tanımlanabilecek yeterlikler olduğu bilinmektedir. Her bir yükseköğreim düzeyinde öğrenim çıktıları açısından farklılığı olan bu öğrenim programlarının (yeterlikler gruplarının) sınıflandırılması aşağıda Tablo 2'de verilmektedir.
Tablo 2. Ulusal Yeterlikler çerçevesi düzeyleri ve farklı öğrenim çıktıları olan yeterlikler
QF-EHEA: 3. Düzey EQF-LLL : 8. Düzey
QF-EHEA: 2. Düzey EQF-LLL : 7. Düzey
Tezli Yüksek Lisans
Tezsiz Yüksek Lisans
EQF-LLL : 6. Düzey
Yüksekokul ve Konservatuar
QF-EHEA: Kısa Düzey, EQF-LLL : 5. Düzey
Lisans içerisinde ön lisans
Türkiye Yükseköğretim Ulusal Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYUYÇ) ile ilgili Genel Kurul Kararı:
Yükseköğretim Kurulu'nun 21/05/09 tarihli ve 10 no'lu Genel Kurul kararı uyarınca, "Türkiye Yükseköğretim Ulusal Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYUYÇ)" oluşturma çalışmalarıyla ilgili olarak Ek' te yer alan rapor görüşülerek,
1. TYUYÇ'nin oluşturulma süreci ve takviminin,
2. TYUYÇ'de yer alacak düzeylerin (Dört Düzey) (Önlisans, Lisans, Yüksek Lisans, Doktora),
3. TYUYÇ kapsamında Yükseköğretim (1), Mesleki Eğitim (2) ve Sanat Eğitimi (3) Yeterlilikler Çerçeveleri'nin 3 (üç) ayrı çerçeve olarak tasarımının,
4. TYUYÇ'nin her bir düzeyi ve/veya profili için verilen derecelerin
(Önlisans, Lisans, Yüksek Lisans (Tezli-Tezsiz), Doktora/Tıpta Uzmanlık/Sanatta Doktora),
5. Düzeylerin tanımlanması için kullanılan genel düzey tanımlayıcıları ile TYUYÇ kapsamında tanımlanmış olan Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora düzey tanımlarının;
Bundan sonraki çalışmalar için Yükseköğretim Ulusal Yeterlilikler Komisyonu'na bağlı olarak;
1. Mesleki Eğitim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi çalışmaları için Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı ve Mesleki Yeterlilikler Kurumu'ndan ilgili temsilcilerin de içinde bulunacağı "Yükseköğretim Mesleki Eğitim Yeterlilikler Çalışma Grubu"nun oluşturulmasına,
2. Sanat Eğitimi Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi çalışmaları için Güzel Sanatlar Fakültesi ile Konservatuar temsilcilerin içinde bulunacağı "Yükseköğretim Sanat Eğitim Yeterlilikler Çalışma Grubu" nun oluşturulmasına,
3. TYUYÇ' nin sektörel (bilim/meslek veya sanat alanı) ve her bir sektör içerisinde program düzeyinde hayata geçirilebilmesi için yükseköğretim mevzuatı kapsamına yasal ve idari düzenlemelerin yapılmasına,
4. karar verilmiştir.
Yukarıda belirtildiği üzere, ülkemizde Bologna Süreci ve Lizbon Stratejisi çalışmaları doğrultusunda yükseköğretimde ulusal bir yeterlilikler çerçevesi oluşturma çalışmaları Başkanlığımız sorumluluğu ve koordinasyonu çerçevesinde konuyla ilgili oluşturulan Komisyon ve Çalışma Gruplarının katkılarıyla sürdürülmektedir. Bu kapsamda günümüze kadar yapılan çalışmalar ve ulaşılan sonuçlar Komisyon tarafından hazrılanan özet raporda yer almaktadır (özet rapora ulaşmak için buraya tıklayın).
Onbir adımda oluşturulması ve yükseköğretim programları düzeyinde uygulanması öngörülen "Türkiye Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYYÇ)"nin günümüze kadar yapılan çalışmalar ile uygulama takvimi, tasarımı, kredi ve öğrenci çalışma yükleri ile mesleki eğitimi de kapsayan önlisans, lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora düzeylerinin yeterliliklerinin oluşturulması çalışmaları tamamlanmıştır. TYYÇ'nin belirtilen bu temel unsurları Yükseköğretim Genel Kurulu'nun daha önce aldığı 21.05.2009 tarih ve 10 sayılı kararı paralelinde 21.01 2010 tarihli toplantısında görüşülerek kabul edilmiş ve bundan sonraki süreçte TYYÇ'nin yükseköğretim kurumları düzeyinde uygulanmasına yönelik yapılması gereken çalışmalar karara bağlanmıştır.
21.01.2010 tarihli Genel Kurul kararı;
1 . İsminin "Türkiye Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYYÇ)" olarak değiştirilmesine, Genel Kurul kararında bahsi geçen Eklerdeki tablolar için burayı tıklayın.
2. Oluşturma süreci ve takviminin Ek-1: Tablo 1'de gösterilen tarihler ile güncellenmesine,3. (1) Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikleri, (2) Mesleki Eğitim Yeterlilikleri ve (3) Sanat Eğitimi Yeterlilikleri olarak tasarımı öngörülmüş olan TYYÇ Yeterlilik Profillerinin (farklılıklarının), Ek-2: Tablo 2'de gösterildiği şekli ile "Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikleri" olarak değiştirilmesine,4. 6., 7. ve 8. düzeylerin düzey tanımlarının, yükseköğretimin tüm düzeylerini ve bu düzeylerin yeterlilik profillerini (farklılıklarını) kapsayacak şekilde tek bir çerçevede tanımlandığı TYYÇ önlisans, lisans,yüksek lisans ve doktora düzey tanımlarının Ek-3: Tablo 3, 4, 5 ve 6'da gösterildiği şekli ile değiştirilmesine;5. Her bir düzeyi için toplam kredi (AKTS) ve öğrenci çalışma yükü aralıklarının Ek-4: Tablo 7'de gösterildiği şekli ile uygun olduğuna; TYYÇ kapsamında bundan sonraki çalışmaların sürdürülebilmesi için; 1. TYYÇ kapsamında Temel Alan Yeterliliklerinin tanımlanması çalışmalarına esas teşkil etmek üzere TYYÇ Temel Alanları olarak Uluslararası Eğitim Sınıflandırma Stardardı (ISCED 97)'nın belirlediği temel alanların (Ek-4: Tablo 7) benimsenmesine,2. TYYÇ Temel Alan Yeterliliklerinin tanımlanmasında görev alacak olan Temel Alan Konseyleri Üyelerinin ilgili temel alanlarda konu uzmanı dekanlar arasından Üniversitelerarası Kurul'un Eğitim Konseyleri tarafından belirlenecek üyelerin katılımı ile oluşturulmasına,
karar verilmiştir .
21.01.2010 tarihli Genel Kurul kararı;
1. İsminin "Türkiye Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYYÇ)" olarak değiştirilmesine, Genel Kurul kararında bahsi geçen Eklerdeki tablolar için burayı tıklayın.
What is the ISCED?
ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) which was developed by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), is contrived as a tool for collection of education statistics and comparable indicators, for compiling and their presentation at both national and international level. ISCED presents standard concept, definition and classification. ISCED which was first published in 1976, has been revised in 1997 and used for the purpose of determination of policy for education, and for facilitating the data collection by many countries so far. In 2010, UNESCO entered in the process of consultation and displayed ISCED 2011 draft documents. Publishing of the documents officially at the beginning of 2011 is anticipated.
ISCED-1997 purveys the criteria with an advanced description set for the international comparability in the classification of educational programs according to the educational level and disciplines.
It is aimed to make ISCED-1997 applicable regardless of its level, with a view to being universal. It is designed as a tool to collect both national and international comparable educational statistics and indicators and to present them.
The information above was cited from the report that was translated by Turkish Statistics Institute. If you want to reach whole information you can visit:
If you want to see original document of ISCED-1997 you can visit: http://www.unesco.org/education/information/nfsunesco/doc/isced_1997.htm
NQF-HETR Fields of Education and Programmes